This is the case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the server is authenticated by the client examining the server's certificate. HTTPS creates a secure channel over an insecure network. This ensures reasonable protection from eavesdroppers and man-in-the-middle attacksprovided that adequate cipher suites are used and that the server certificate is verified and trusted. This includes the request URL which particular web page was requestedquery parameters, headers, and cookies which often contain identity information about the user.
Bourgeois Learning Objectives Upon successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to: Introduction When someone has an idea for a new function to be performed by a computer, how does that idea become reality?
If a company wants to implement a new business process and needs new hardware or software to support it, how do they go about making it happen? In this chapter, we will discuss the different methods of taking those ideas and bringing them to reality, a process known as information systems development.
Programming As we learned in chapter 2, software is created via programming. Programming is the process of creating a set of logical instructions for a digital device to follow using a programming language.
True, sometimes a programmer can quickly write a short program to solve a need. But most of the time, the creation of software is a resource-intensive process that involves several different groups of people in an organization.
In the following sections, we are going to review several different methodologies for software development. This methodology was first developed in the s to manage the large software projects associated with corporate systems running on mainframes.
It is a very structured and risk-averse methodology designed to manage large projects that included multiple programmers and systems that would have a large impact on the organization.
In this phase, a review is done of the request. Is creating a solution possible? What is currently being done about it?
Is this project a good fit for our organization? A key part of this step is a feasibility analysis, which includes an analysis of the technical feasibility is it possible to create this?
This step is important in determining if the project should even get started. In this phase, one or more system analysts work with different stakeholder groups to determine the specific requirements for the new system. No programming is done in this step.
Instead, procedures are documented, key players are interviewed, and data requirements are developed in order to get an overall picture of exactly what the system is supposed to do. The result of this phase is a system-requirements document.
It is in this phase that the business requirements are translated into specific technical requirements. The design for the user interface, database, data inputs and outputs, and reporting are developed here.
The result of this phase is a system-design document. This document will have everything a programmer will need to actually create the system. The code finally gets written in the programming phase. The result of this phase is an initial working program that meets the requirements laid out in the system-analysis phase and the design developed in the system-design phase.
In the testing phase, the software program developed in the previous phase is put through a series of structured tests. The first is a unit test, which tests individual parts of the code for errors or bugs.
Next is a system test, where the different components of the system are tested to ensure that they work together properly. Finally, the user-acceptance test allows those that will be using the software to test the system to ensure that it meets their standards.
Any bugs, errors, or problems found during testing are addressed and then tested again. Once the new system is developed and tested, it has to be implemented in the organization. This phase includes training the users, providing documentation, and conversion from any previous system to the new system.
Implementation can take many forms, depending on the type of system, the number and type of users, and how urgent it is that the system become operational. These different forms of implementation are covered later in the chapter. This final phase takes place once the implementation phase is complete.
In this phase, the system has a structured support process in place: The SDLC methodology is sometimes referred to as the waterfall methodology to represent how each step is a separate part of the process; only when one step is completed can another step begin.
After each step, an organization must decide whether to move to the next step or not. This methodology has been criticized for being quite rigid.
For example, changes to the requirements are not allowed once the process has begun. No software is available until after the programming phase.Publications.
NIST develops and maintains an extensive collection of standards, guidelines, recommendations, and research on the security and privacy of information and information systems. Produce data layers, maps, tables, or reports, using spatial analysis procedures or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, equipment, or systems.
There is even a progressive analysis of the possible forms of giving applications like Web browsers a more powerful hypertext functionality. What this meant was that an entire technology of "hypertext for the Web" had sprung up. Information processing: Information processing, the acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information.
In recent years, the term has often been applied to computer-based operations specifically. Learn more about the elements of information processing in this article.
The Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
FOR teaches the tools, technology, and processes required to integrate network data sources into forensic investigations, with a focus on efficiency and effectiveness.