Rock slope stability analysis[ edit ] Rock slope stability analysis based on limit equilibrium techniques may consider following modes of failures: Searching of the critical slip surface is realized with the help of a grid or as a slope search in user-defined area. Program includes also probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo or Latin Hypercube simulation techniques where any input parameter can be defined as a random variable. Probabilistic analysis determine the probability of failure and reliability index, which gives better representation of the level of safety.
Korean literature The tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagia history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times. It was completed in and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, but also on the Hwarang Segi written by the Silla historian Kim Daemun in the 8th century.
The latter work is now lost.
This work is considered much more accessible than the "Official Histories" for the Six dynastiesTang dynastyand Five Dynastiesand in practice superseded those works in the mind of the general reader. It reduced the original's chapters to just 59, and for the rest of imperial Chinese history would be the first history book most people ever read.
During the Age of Enlightenmentthe modern development of historiography through the application of scrupulous methods began. Among the many Italians who contributed to this were Leonardo Bruni c. Voltaire[ edit ] French philosophe Voltaire — had an enormous influence on the development of historiography during the Age of Enlightenment through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past.
Guillaume de Syon argues: Voltaire recast historiography in both factual and analytical terms. Not only did he reject traditional biographies and accounts that claim the work of supernatural forces, but he went so far as to suggest that earlier historiography was rife with falsified evidence and required new investigations at the source.
Such an outlook was not unique in that the scientific spirit that 18th-century intellectuals perceived themselves as invested with.
A rationalistic approach was key to rewriting history. He broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in the arts and sciences.
He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world, eliminating theological frameworks, and emphasizing economics, culture and political history.
Although he repeatedly warned against political bias on the part of the historian, he did not miss many opportunities to expose the intolerance and frauds of the church over the ages. Voltaire advised scholars that anything contradicting the normal course of nature was not to be believed.
Although he found evil in the historical record, he fervently believed reason and educating the illiterate masses would lead to progress. He helped free historiography from antiquarianism, Eurocentrismreligious intolerance and a concentration on great men, diplomacy, and warfare.
Hume adopted a similar scope to Voltaire in his history; as well as the history of Kings, Parliaments, and armies, he examined the history of culture, including literature and science, as well.
Because of its relative objectivity and heavy use of primary sourcesits methodology became a model for later historians. This has led to Gibbon being called the first "modern historian".
Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting. Winston Churchill memorably noted, "I set out upon Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [and] was immediately dominated both by the story and the style I rode triumphantly through it from end to end and enjoyed it all.
In accuracy, thoroughness, lucidity, and comprehensive grasp of a vast subject, the 'History' is unsurpassable. It is the one English history which may be regarded as definitive Whatever its shortcomings the book is artistically imposing as well as historically unimpeachable as a vast panorama of a great period.
The tumultuous events surrounding the French Revolution inspired much of the historiography and analysis of the early 19th century.IMS Health and Quintiles are now IQVIA.
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Data, research, outlooks and country reviews on environment including biodiversity, water, resource and waste management, climate change, global warming and consumption. Roman is the former News Writer for Information Security Media Group. Having worked for multiple publications at The College of New Jersey, including the College's newspaper "The Signal" and alumni magazine, Roman has experience in journalism, copy editing and communications.
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