King Cotton Historians believe that cotton farming was introduced into the United States by immigrants[ citation needed ].
Cotton was first grown in Texas by Spanish missionaries. A report of the missions at San Antonio in indicates that several thousand pounds of cotton were produced annually, then spun and woven by mission craftsmen.
Cotton cultivation was begun by Anglo-American colonists in In a census of the cotton production of the state reported 58, bales pounds each. In Texas was in eighth place among the top ten cotton-producing states of the nation.
From , Missouri was ranked eighth in cotton production in the United States with the average production value of $,, Missouri soil allows for the growth of upland cotton with the average bale weighing approximately five hundred pounds. The cottonseed from Missouri cotton production is used as livestock feed. The components of this business plan have been submitted on a confidential basis. It may not be reproduced, stored, or copied in any form. By accepting delivery of this plan the recipient agrees to return this copy of the plan. Do not copy, fax, reproduce or ShellyCakes Business Plan. OPERATING COSTS FOR U. S. COTTON GINS BY LOCATION, PLANT SIZE, AND UTILIZATION RATES: August THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL HARKET ~~~ RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER.', in cooperation with Department of Agricultural Economics The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A&M University fluctuations in annual cotton production.
The census credited Texas with a yield ofbales. This sharp rise in production in the late s and early s was due at least in part to the removal of Indians, which opened up new areas for cotton production. The Civil War caused a decrease in production, but by the cotton crop was reported asbales. The introduction of barbed wire in the s and the building of railroads further stimulated the industry.
In some 2, acres producedbales. The census reported 3, acres producing 1. The cotton crop in was more than 3. Additional factors contributed to the increase in cotton production during the last years of the nineteenth century. A specially designed plow made it possible to break up the thick black sod, and the fertile prairie soil produced as much as one bale per acre in some areas.
Beginning inthousands of immigrants from the Deep South and from Europe poured into the Blackland Prairie of Central Texas and began growing cotton.
Some of the newcomers bought small farmsteads, but most worked as tenant farmers or sharecroppers for landowners who controlled spreads as large as 6, acres. Cotton planting began in the spring, cultivation occurred during the summer, and harvesting by hand-picking began in late August. Tenants lived in houses on the landowners' property and supplied their own draft animals, tools, and seed; for their year of work, after the cotton was ginned, they received two-thirds of the value of the cotton.
The landowner received one-third. Sharecroppers furnished only their labor, while the landowner supplied animals, houses, seed, and tools, and at the end of the cotton season the sharecroppers received half the value of the crop.
In both cases tenants and sharecroppers, whether white or black, bought such goods as shoes, medicines, and staple food items from the landowners' commissaries, and the landowners kept the accounts.
After the cotton was sold and the accounts settled, the tenant or sharecropper often had little or no hard cash left over. This socially enforced debt peonage, known as the crop-lien system, began after the Civil War and continued in practice until the s.
Increased cotton production led to technological improvements in cotton ginning -the process of separating cotton fibers from their seeds, cleaning the fibers, and baling the lint for shipment to market.
In Robert S. Munger of Mexia revolutionized the slow, animal-powered method of "plantation ginning" by devising the faster, automated "system ginning," the process in use today. Cotton compresses, huge machines that reduced pound bales to about half their ginned, or flat-bale, size for convenience in shipping, were constructed along railroad rights-of-way in many towns.
The relocation of compresses from port cities such as Galveston to interior cotton-growing areas allowed farmers to sell their crops directly to buyers, who represented textile mills on the East Coast, and the buyers to send the cotton directly to the mills by rail rather than by ship.
As telegraph lines spread westward, cotton could be bought and sold on the world market faster than ever before. Not only were the fibers sold, but also the cottonseed was crushed for cooking oil, hulls were converted to cattle feed, and portions of the plant were used to make an early type of plastic.
Technology and a world demand for cotton products, however, could not offset the devastation of the boll weevil. Farmers first saw the ravaging effect of the weevil, which had spread northward from Mexico, near Corpus Christi during the s.
Within a few years, boll weevil damage affected crops throughout Texas and the Cotton Belt, the cotton-growing states of the Deep South.
Farmers used calcium arsenate dust and other pesticides to reduce the damage from boll weevils and such pests as the pink bollworm.
A high demand for cotton during World War I stimulated production, but a drop in prices after the war led many tenants and sharecroppers to abandon farming altogether and move to the cities for better job opportunities. Factors that caused the decline of cotton production in the state after the s were the federal government's control program, which cut acreage in half, the increase in foreign production the state had been exporting approximately 85 percent of the total cropthe introduction of synthetic fibers, the tariff, the lack of a lint-processing industry in Texas, and World War IIwhich brought a shortage of labor and disrupted commerce.
During the Great Depression of the s, many former tenants and sharecroppers returned to farmwork, but after the United States entered World War II infarmworkers moved again to the cities for work in war-related industries.
After the war, when steel and rubber became available to manufacturers again, farmers began to mechanize their methods of planting, cultivating, and harvesting, thus eliminating the need for tenants and sharecroppers, many of whom did not return to farmwork, and leading to new practices in cotton production that remain in use today.
Cotton culture is now characterized by fewer but larger farms, fewer farmworkers and increased use of machines, widespread irrigationbetter pest and weed control methods, alterations to the cotton plant that make it easier to harvest mechanically, and greater cooperation among farmers for marketing.
The most notable change in the production of cotton in the twentieth century was the geographical shift from East and Central Texas to the High Plains and the Rio Grande valley.
Large production in the latter areas was obtained by extensive use of fertilizers and irrigation. Cotton requires fertile soil for profitable yields.COTTON CULTURE. Cotton was first grown in Texas by Spanish missionaries.
|Top County's Production||Pinterest Email Cotton is the most commonly used natural fiber for spinning into yarn or thread used to make textile. Cottonseed is also used to produce cottonseed oil.|
|COTTON CULTURE | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)||Department of Agriculture research group in Lubbock, Texas, studies the effects of heat and water stress on crops. The cotton on the left received an optimal amount of water, while the plants on the right relied on rainfall — a mere 25 centimeters 10 inches inone-third of what the optimal plot received.|
|Texas High Plains Prepare for Agriculture Without Irrigation - Circle of Blue||Railroads brought rapid expansion of people, business, and cities across the state. Because railroads enabled farmers and ranchers to transporttheir products more efficiently, by the turn of the century Texas had become a leading producer of both cattle and cotton.|
|Regulation During Stressful Times||King Cotton Historians believe that cotton farming was introduced into the United States by immigrants[ citation needed ]. While it was recorded in Florida in [ citation needed ] and in Jamestown, Virginia in [ citation needed ], it is believed that cotton has been planted and cultured in the United States since|
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A report of the missions at San Antonio in indicates that several thousand pounds of cotton were produced annually, then spun and woven by mission craftsmen.
Cotton cultivation was begun by Anglo-American colonists in . texas direct farm business guide michaela tarr charles cunningham rusty w. rumley.
Report to Members National Cotton Council action on behalf of the U.S. cotton industry is described in annual reports Structure The National Cotton Council is a federation that works out common problems and develops programs of mutual benefit for its members.
Texas leads the nation in cattle, cotton, hay, sheep, goats and mohair production. Texas leads the nation in number of farms and ranches, with , farms and ranches covering million acres. Texas has more women and minority farm operations than any other state in the nation. Texas also leads the nation in value of farm real estate.
Cotton, wheat, and grain sorghum are the principal crops produced in West Central Texas. The cotton growing area represents a portion of two cotton production regions, that of the Southern Rolling Plains and the eastern portion of the Trans-Pecos Region.
MARKETING ON COTTON SPINNING QUALITIES FINAL REPORT Mina Mohammadioun Bureau of Business Research, The University of Texas at Austin x1=the number of pounds of cotton from grade i used in production, w=the price of a pound of cotton of grade i, F=costs that are not dependent on xi, "fixed" costs.