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Received Nov 4; Accepted Jan 9.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Nitrogen N cycles have been directly linked to the functional stability of ecosystems because N is an essential element for life.
Furthermore, the supply of N to organisms regulates primary productivity in many natural ecosystems. Microbial communities have been shown to significantly contribute to N cycles because many N-cycling processes are microbially mediated.
Only particular Creative brief for weber stephen products llc of microbes were implicated in N-cycling processes, such as nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification, until a few decades ago. However, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and sophisticated isolation techniques have enabled microbiologists to discover that N-cycling microbes are unexpectedly diverse in their functions and phylogenies.
Therefore, elucidating the link between biogeochemical N-cycling processes and microbial community dynamics can provide a more mechanistic understanding of N cycles than the direct observation of N dynamics. In this review, we summarized recent findings that characterized the microbes governing novel N-cycling processes.
We also discussed the ecological role of N-cycling microbial community dynamics, which is essential for advancing our understanding of the functional stability of ecosystems. An ecosystem can be defined as an interacting system composed of an environment and all the organisms involved in it.
Many ecosystem ecologists have focused on the N cycle or the dynamics of N transformation in various ecosystems because N along with H, C, O, S and Pas a major component of proteins and nucleic acids, is an essential element for life and its supply can limit primary productivity in many natural terrestrial and marine ecosystems 12 The N cycle has also been the focus of debate in nitrogen-rich ecosystems, such as fertilized agricultural fields or eutrophic rivers and coasts that are affected by anthropogenic N input 48538590,, Wastewater treatment systems are also examples of artificial ecosystems in which N removal is frequently studied 2978, Studies on the pathways and rates of input, output, and internal cycle of N and its interactions with other elements can provide insights into the fundamental issues related to ecosystem ecology.
N transitions between compounds with different oxidation states are largely driven by thermodynamically constrained redox reactions and are typically catalyzed by microbes Given the ubiquity and biogeochemical contributions of microbes, microbial community dynamics may be directly associated with temporal and spatial variations in internal N-cycling pathways and rates in ecosystems.
Microbiologists have already demonstrated the critical ecological roles that microbes play in N-cycling pathways and rates by integrating microbial community dynamics into N biogeochemical phenomena. Microbial community dynamics may also ultimately affect the functional stability of ecosystems.
Ecosystem ecologists have frequently reported non-linear alterations in N dynamics and sometimes identified the thresholds at which these alterations occurred as ecosystems responded to perturbations or disturbances. For example, Aber et al.
The first stage was characterized by an increase in net soil N mineralization and tree growth. Non-linear alterations in the N dynamics of ecosystems may be largely due to the non-linear responses of microbial community dynamics or the physiological constraints of the community.
Therefore, ecosystem ecologists are beginning to explicitly consider the ecological roles of microbial community dynamics 2 However, ecological studies by microbiologists may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of not only the N cycle of the ecosystem, but also its functional stability, and can ultimately permit predictions of the functional stability in a changing environment with an unprecedented level of detail.Thinking Outside the Box: A Misguided Idea The truth behind the universal, but flawed, catchphrase for creativity.
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J Henry Competition and Development - The Power of Competitive Markets, Susan Joekes, Phil Evans Algebra 1 Study Guide and Intervention Workbook, McGraw-Hill . JAMES K. SEBENIUS specializes in analyzing and advising on complex negotiations. He holds the Gordon Donaldson Professorship of Business Administration at Harvard Business School.
In , he took the lead in the School's decision--unique among major business schools--to make negotiation a required course in the MBA Program and to create a Negotiation Unit (department) which he headed .
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