On both ends of this spectrum it is likely that the individuals involved are suffering in one way or another. The unfortunate fact is that police officers spend an above average amount of time around pain, suffering and sadness.
For large- scale applications of information technology, governments have been called upon to apply procedures like those commonly used in major industrial and social projects.
Thus, commitment might have to be deferred pending dissemination and public discussion of independent environmental or social impact statements. Although organizations that use information technology might see this as interventionism, decision making and approval for major information technology applications may nevertheless become more widely representative.
Closed- system versus open- system thinking Computer- based systems no longer comprise independent machines each serving a single location.
The marriage of computing with telecommunications has produced multicomponent systems designed to support all elements of a widely dispersed organization. Integration hasn't been simply geographic, however. The practice of information systems has matured since the early years when existing manual systems were automated largely without procedural change.
Developers now seek payback via the rationalization of existing systems and varying degrees of integration among previously separate functions. With the advent of strategic and interorganizational systems, economies are being sought at the level of industry sectors, and functional integration increasingly occurs across corporate boundaries.
Although programmers can no longer regard the machine as an almost entirely closed system with tightly circumscribed sensory and motor capabilities, many habits of closed- system thinking remain.
Human activities in particular must be perceived as part of the system. This applies to manual procedures within systems such as reading dials on control panelshuman activities on the fringes of systems such as decision making based on computer- collated and - displayed informationand the security of the user's environment automated teller machines, for example.
The focus must broaden from mere technology to technology in use. General systems thinking leads information technologists to recognize that relativity and change must he accommodated. Today, an artifact may be applied in multiple cultures where language, religion, laws, and customs differ.
Over time, the original context may change. For example, models for a criminal justice system - one based on punishment and another based on redemption - may alternately dominate social thinking. Therefore, complex systems must be capable of adaptation.
Blind acceptance of technological and other imperatives Contemporary utilitarian society seldom challenges the presumption that what can be done should be done. Although this technological imperative is less pervasive than people generally think, societies nevertheless tend to follow where their technological capabilities lead.
Related tendencies include the economic imperative what can be done more efficiently should be and the marketing imperative any effective demand should be met. An additional tendency might be called the "information imperative," the dominance of administrative efficiency, information richness, and rational decision making.
However, the collection of personal data has become so pervasive that citizens and employees have begun to object. The greater a technology's potential to promote change, the more carefully a society should consider the desirability of each application.
Complementary measures that may be needed to ameliorate its negative effects should also be considered. This is a major theme of Asimov's stories, as he explores the hidden effects of technology.
The potential impact of information technology is so great that it would be inexcusable for professionals to succumb blindly to the economic, marketing, information, technological, and other imperatives. Application software professionals can no longer treat the implications of information technology as someone else's problem but must consider them as part of the project.
In his very first short story, a little girl is too closely attached to Robbie the Robot for her parents' liking. Yet several studies have found a surprising degree of identification by humans with computers.
Educational institutions and staff training programs must identify these limitations; yet even this is not sufficient: The human- machine interface must reflect them. Systems must be designed so that users are required to continually exercise their own expertise, and system output should not be phrased in a way that implies unwarranted authority.
These objectives challenge the conventional outlook of system designers. Human opposition to robots Robots are agents of change and therefore potentially upsetting to those with vested interests. Of all the machines so far invented or conceived of, robots represent the most direct challenge to humans.
Vociferous and even violent campaigns against robotics should not be surprising. Beyond concerns of self interest is the possibility that some humans could be revulsed by robots, particularly those with humanoid characteristics.
Some opponents may be mollified as robotic behavior becomes more tactful. Another tenable argument is that by creating and deploying artifacts that are in some ways superior.Law Enforcement and the Rights of the Accused - Law Enforcement and the Rights of the Accused Law Enforcement and the Rights of the Accused In this paper, I will discuss Amendments VI, V, VI and VIII which give rights to the accused.
Stress In Law Enforcement Posted on November 9, Updated on November 9, Law enforcement officers face all types of stress during their daily activities.
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The essay will be formatted in APA Style, doubled space using Times New Roman 12 point font. Part 1 (IEEE Computer, December ) Introduction.
With the death of Isaac Asimov on April 6, , the world lost a prodigious imagination. Unlike fiction writers before him, who regarded robotics as something to be feared, Asimov saw a promising technological innovation to be exploited and managed.