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A Case Study Tamil Wikipedia: A case study accepted for presentation at Wikimania Acknowledgment The author thanks NatkeeranRavishankarSelvakumarKarthickbalaand fellow Tamil Wikipedia editors for feedback and other inputs. Abstract Three distinct growth phases have been identified in this case study of Tamil Wikipedia since late Several distinct characteristics of the Wikipedia and its editors are identified.
Outreach efforts and sibling projects are also discused in this study. Challenges and future plans are outlined. Introduction Tamil is a classical language spoken by more than 78 million people across the world with a rich literary tradition spanning millennia.
Significant acclaimed Tamil literature has existed for over two thousand years.
This case study attempts to characterise the Tamil Wikipedia, its editorial team, growth trends, challenges faced, and plans to take it to the next important stage. Extant Tamil literature consists of works on poetics, philosophy, ethics, grammar, etc.
Notable among the early Tamil encyclopaedias were Abidhaanakosam,  written by Muthuthambiyaar and published in Jaffna inand Abidhaana Chindhaamani,  a page work which took 42 years of determined work by Singaravelanar and published in Chennai in the year Later, a volume encyclopaedia on science and a volume work on humanities were published by the Thanjavur Tamil University,  in an intended series of 20 and 15 volumes respectively.
The first comprehensive modern encyclopaedia was published from to as a 10 volume set. More recently, ina collection of 28, articles from the concise edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica was translated and published in Tamil by Vikatan Publishers.
Tamil Wikipedia was started on September 30, by an anonymous person by posting a link to their Yahoo! He made some anonymous edits alongside. Around five active editors including the author joined the project in the second half of Some occasional editors turned out to become regular editors and the Wiki started growing steadily.
Bugs were reported to fix the interface, policies partially deriving from the English Wikipedia were initiated, and editors started to specialise in tasks like stub sorting, creating templates, copyediting, wikifying, translation, original writing etc.
Even at this early stage, the Tamil Wikipedia had a global editorial team representing almost every continent. After registering a period of high linear growth in several metrics on a lower base, the Tamil Wikipedia started witnessing, around Aprila low linear growth on a higher base in several quantitative metrics.
This period, however, also showed a perceivably super-linear growth in article quality aspects like length, standard of prose, image use, inline citation usage, etc.
Late to early was a period characterised by a near constant number of active and very active editors, a steady influx of new and occasional editors, a healthy, enthusiastic and continuity-preserving churn, and, above all, optimism for a promising future.
Data up to Jan 18, articles as of April 30 Growth The three distinct phases noted in the History section are shown in the accompanying chart. The number of very active Wikipedians not in chart has also grown well.
With the recent workshops and the planned events, we hope to hit a hockey-stick growth phase in the second half of The premise behind the hope is the following: Other metrics like article length etc. Given this, if the number of active users increases super-linearly due to the recent outreach efforts and the consequent mainstream media attention, content growth will really take on to a higher plane.
VKthe senior most editor, has so far written articles in Mathematics, Astronomy and Philosophy, contributing from the US and India.
Tamil Wikipedia has had a diverse set of editors from the beginning. The editors are from various professions—engineers, scientists, academics, students, administrators, self-employed people, etc.
Editors are aged between 15  and 85 years, with a non-uniform but remarkably not power law distribution in between. Educational qualifications and income levels too vary across the spectrum. Based on some available monitoring tools, it has been identified that there are approximately 60, page requests each day.
However, this curve is flattening over time. A point to be kept in mind is that many newcomers have made a significant contribution within a shorter duration than the established users. Distinct characteristics General cordiality and assumption of good faith among regular editors Quality focus from early on  concern  about article diversity when Ganeshbota bot similar to Rambot of the English Wikipedia, was proposed Early emphasis on citing sources   Individual editors writing full-length articles later copyedited by others Specialist roles chosen by editors even when a handful of editors were actively editing 'In the news' and 'Selected anniversaries' sections meticulously updated, almost on a daily basis, by a dedicated user  Several topics, on diverse areas, are being covered for the first time in Tamil.
Tamil Wikipedia editors endeavour to attain currency of knowledge, by writing articles on topics that are emerging in science, technology, politics etc.
As is customary, especially in agglutinative languages, suitable terminologies are coined as needed from existing words and roots. In English Wikipedia, the primary and nearly the singular motivation for editors, is to document and spread knowledge. English as a medium is incidental.the affects of environment pollution in the perspective of air pollution, water and land/ soil waste pollution on human by diseases and problems, animals and trees/ plants.
Study finds that these kinds of pollutions are not only seriously affecting the human by. Water Pollution refer to the presence of harmful substances or pollutants in water bodies.
It happens when untreated wastes and pollutants are discharged into water bodies. As a result, the water of sea, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoir, and ground-water get polluted.
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